A type of pericarditis, or inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, is a postpericardiotomy syndrome. After an incident of trauma or damage to the heart tissue, such as from an attack of the heart or open heart surgery. The immune system is hypothesized to respond with inflammation. The postpericardiotomy syndrome is no longer as common as it once was. This disease typically develops one to three days after a heart attack. Swelling and inflammation occur as a result of the body’s efforts to cleanse and repair damaged cardiac tissue.
Patients who had undergone mitral valve surgery and experienced fever and pleuritic pain were the first to be diagnosed with the postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS). Individuals often develop PPS a few days following surgery, although clinical symptoms might develop weeks or months later and may be accompanied by significant morbidity. It is believed that a heightened immune response to injury is what causes post-cardiothoracic surgery-related PPS. Nevertheless, the post-pericardiotomy syndrome has also been mentioned in relation to myocardial infarction (Dressler syndrome) and as an uncommon side effect of percutaneous procedures like coronary stent placement, transvenous pacemaker lead placement, physical trauma, wounds from stabbing, and heart puncture are some examples of pacemaker procedures.
Pericardial effusions are a common side effect of the illness and can cause cardiac tamponade early or late after surgery as well as recurring cardiac tamponade. Along with pneumonitis, irregular ECG, and radiographic abnormalities, the illness is also characterized by pericardial or pleuritic pain, shortness of breath, friction rubs, pleural effusions, and pleural effusions.
Pericarditis causes the pericardial sac to inflame, which causes friction at the inflamed sac and consequent chest pain. It may appear shortly after a serious heart attack as a result of irritation to the injured heart muscle below. Even after a heart attack or even after having heart surgery, pericarditis may develop in a delayed form that develops weeks later. The delayed form of pericarditis is referred to as Postpericardiotomy syndrome. Dressler’s syndrome and post-cardiac injury syndrome are other names for it.
Other potential factors include:
- Trauma: Pericarditis can develop in people who have had a car accident and have injuries to their chest or hearts.
- Systemic inflammatory diseases: Pericarditis can be brought on by lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
- Some medical conditions: If a person has any medical conditions, such as AIDS, kidney failure, cancer, or tuberculosis, this can increase the likelihood that they will get pericarditis.
Fever, pleuritis (with potential pleural edema), pericarditis (with potential pericardial effusion), sporadic but rare pulmonary penetration, and exhaustion are the typical symptoms of postpericardiotomy syndrome. In some instances, you might also notice a cough, pleuritic or retrosternal pain in the chest, joint pain, or a drop in oxygen saturation. Arthritis and petechiae on the layers of the skin and palate are further symptoms. Typical signs that manifest themselves are:
- Pain in the chest.
- Irritability as well as a decline in appetite.
- Patients may also have arthralgia and dyspnea.
The diagnosis of the postpericardiotomy syndrome is one of exclusion. Since there are no specific tests available to make the diagnosis, it is established by ruling out other illnesses that might manifest similar symptoms. A focused physical examination to look for pleural or pericardial rubs, laboratory tests to check for inflammation and myocardial necrosis markers, an ECG, a chest X-ray, and transthoracic echocardiography to check for the presence, size, and hemodynamic significance of pericardial effusions are all part of the evaluation of a patient with the suspected postpericardiotomy syndrome.
Despite the fact that the aforementioned diagnostic techniques typically sufficiently rule out the other potential postoperative states and disorders, the empirical use of antibiotics, NSAIDs, or colchicine is frequently necessary to confirm the diagnosis of postpericardiotomy syndrome.
- Electrocardiogram: An ECG may help in the diagnosis of postpericardiotomy syndrome. ST-segment altitude, T-wave inversion, and PR pessimism in numerous leads are ECG abnormalities connected to pericarditis.
- Heart X-ray: When a pleural effusion is present, the costophrenic angles are typically blunted. Cardiomegaly may be seen if the pericardial effusion is sufficiently large.
- Ultrasonography or Echocardiography: Echocardiography may be helpful in accurately diagnosing post-pericardiotomy syndrome. A postpericardiotomy syndrome echocardiography finding is pericardial effusion.
Treatment for Postpericardiotomy Syndrome:
Treatment is based on both the severity and the precise reason. The different types of treatment include:
- Medications: Medications aid in reducing swelling and inflammation brought on by the issue. The most frequently prescribed drugs include corticosteroids when a patient does not respond to painkillers and pain relievers like aspirin or inuprofen.
- Hospitalization and other procedures: If a doctor suspects cardiac tamponade, a problem brought on by fluid buildup in the heart, hospitalization would be necessary.
In the treatment of postpericardiotomy syndrome, homeopathy can be quite helpful. Both both a curative and a preventive prescription, homeopathic medicines are proven to be useful in the treatment of postpericardiotomy syndrome.
- Digitalis purpurea
- Strophanthus his:
- Aurum metallicum
- Naja tripudians
- Cardus marianus
In most cases, patients who may have postpericardiotomy syndrome are assessed outside of a hospital. Testing and therapy can continue outside of the hospital if the patient’s blood flow is unaffected, but they should be continuously monitored. Medically, it is treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs), such as aspirin. As the fluid level decreases, they are reduced after being administered for four to six weeks. When Aspirin, Ibuprofen, or Naproxen are ineffective, corticosteroids like Prednisone may be used for one week, followed by a four-week taper. There isn’t much data, if any, on colchicine’s efficacy in treating the pediatric postpericardiotomy syndrome.
Precautions for Postpericardiotomy Syndrome:
- Eat a balanced diet. a nutrient-dense food that includes grains that are whole, juicy fruits and vegetables together with low fat and high fiber content.
- Consistently moving. This will reduce cholesterol and maintain stable blood pressure while enhancing heart and vascular health.
- Avoid smoking as it raises your risk of cardiovascular and heart-related disorders.
- Reduce your alcohol consumption.
- Control other health conditions because they ultimately have an effect on the heart. Which includes diabetes or elevated blood pressure.