One of the most typical causes of small artery vasculitis in children is the Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). A six-year-old girl who had been experiencing frequent episodes of vomiting for about ten days appeared with abdominal pain, edema, and rashes across both legs. Although the stool for the occult blood test was positive, neither hematuria nor albuminuria was present. Dexamethasone was administered to the patient for ten days throughout their treatment for HSP. After the patient’s symptoms subsided, she was eventually released from the hospital. In situations without any renal problems, early diagnosis and treatment favor a better prognosis.
A rare inflammatory condition of the small blood vessels (capillaries), Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is typically a self-limited condition. It is the most prevalent type of vasculitis in children and causes inflammatory alterations in the tiny blood vessels. Headache, high temperature, loss of desire to eat, cramping, discomfort in the abdomen, painful periods, hives, bloody diarrhea, and joint pain are some of the symptoms of Henoch-Schonlein purpura. They typically start off quickly. Petechiae are often red or purple spots that develop on the skin.
Along with the joints, kidneys, digestive system, and, in a few rare instances, the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system), HSP-related inflammatory changes can also appear there. In one variation of the condition, known as Schönlein’s purpura, the gastrointestinal tract is unaffected but the skin and joints are. Another kind, called Henoch’s purpura, is characterized by acute stomach issues such as glomerulonephritis (a type of kidney ailment), purplish blotches on the skin, and other symptoms. Henoch’s purpura patients are not afflicted with joint problems. Although research suggests that HSP is related to an abnormal immune response or, in some rare instances, an extreme allergic reaction to particular offending substances (such as foods or medical prescriptions).
Although the precise cause of Henoch-Schonlein purpura is unknown, evidence points to immune system dysfunction (i.e., elevated IgA immune complexes) as a potential contributor. Autoimmune diseases are brought on when the human body’s natural defenses (such as antibodies) fight “outsiders” or organisms that invade and start targeting healthy tissue for unknown reasons. Some experts have hypothesized that this disorder could occasionally be a severe allergic reaction to foods like chocolate, milk, eggs, or beans.
In some instances, it has also been suggested that different medications (such as nifedipine, diltiazem, cefuroxime, and diclofenac), bacteria (such as Streptococcus), and insect stings may also be to blame. About 30% of the time, rubella occurs before the first signs of Henoch-Schonlein purpura. An upper respiratory infection usually appears 1 to 3 weeks before symptoms do, or in around 66% of cases. It has not been established that viral infections are definitely related.
Henoch-Schonlein purpura symptoms start quickly. They may also include headaches, nausea, and/or fever in addition to the distinctive red spots on the skin (most frequently on the buttocks and backs of the legs). Diffuse erythema is the term used to describe the skin turning red. It is possible to experience cramping stomach pain, which typically gets worse at night. Blood may be found in the stool, and unusual gastrointestinal bleeding (hemorrhaging) might result in bloody diarrhea. Any joint in the body can experience joint pain (arthralgia), but the knees and ankles are particularly susceptible.
Some HSP patients report having nausea and diarrhea, while others may struggle with severe constipation and extremely dark stools (melena). Rarely, the affected person’s bowel or intestine may experience an intussusception, or folding in on itself. This can cause a lot of pain, and surgery can be necessary if conservative approaches don’t work. People with the condition may experience persistent headaches, perceptual modifications, convulsions, visual problems (optic atrophy), and/or seizures when the brain’s nervous system is involved.
HSP diagnosis can be challenging, particularly in adults. The condition is commonly mistaken for other types of inflammation of the arteries (see the section of this article titled Related Disorders). Typical laboratory testing rarely provides a firm diagnosis of the condition. Although white blood cell counts and rates of sedimentation may be elevated, the number of platelets is typically normal. Skin lesions and/or joint tenderness, a verified urine test for blood (urinalysis), and a skin biopsy that reveals infection of the arterial and venous vasculature are all used to identify the disorder.
Corticosteroids, immunosuppressive therapy, and anticoagulant therapy are among the Western medical treatments for Henoch-Schönlein purpura that have the potential to have negative side effects and are still debatable. In children with HSP, early corticosteroid therapy did not stop delayed nephritis, according to a clinical investigation. Oncogenesis, myelosuppression, hemorrhagic cystitis, and interstitial pneumonia are some of the negative effects that immunosuppressive medications like cyclophosphamide can cause.
According to a number of recent studies conducted in China, the use of homeopathic medicines in combination with corticosteroids or immunosuppressive medications may have additional benefits, such as reducing proteinuria, relieving blood hypercoagulability, and improving signs and symptoms. These findings suggested that homeopathic medicines may be useful in the combination, consolidative, and ongoing management of Henoch-Schönlein purpura. In this experiment, we hope to evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of using homeopathy to treat HSP in young patients. When you have HSP, avoid taking anti-inflammatory medications without first consulting your doctor. Aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), and naproxen (Aleve) are some of these medications.
With no long-term negative effects, Henoch-Schonlein purpura often goes away on its own after a month. Symptoms may be alleviated by rest, drinking plenty of water, and using over-the-counter painkillers. HSP typically resolves on its own without posing any long-term issues. To help alleviate joint pain and general discomfort, you can give your child a pain reliever (like paracetamol) or a topical pain reliever (like ibuprofen).