A typical reason many endocrine glands fail to operate sequentially or simultaneously is polyglandular syndromes type I, II, and III (PDS). The most frequent etiology (cause, group of reasons) is autoimmune. PDSs, or polyglandular deficiency syndromes, are conditions where one or more endocrine glands are malfunctioning. Additionally, nonendocrine organs may be impacted. The majority of cases are autoimmune; causes are frequently unknown but may include viruses or food ingredients. The afflicted glands help to distinguish polyglandular disorders. The mix of defects that belong to one of three groups determines how they are categorized.
A collection of endocrine abnormalities known as polyglandular syndromes affect patients with immunological dysfunction and related systemic or hormonal deficits in distinct patterns. Immune dysregulations (issues with the immune system), polyendocrinopathies (issues with various endocrine glands), and enteropathies (intestinal illnesses) are all symptoms of autoimmune polyglandular syndromes, notably in inpatients receiving immunoregulatory drugs for cancer treatment. The syndromes has been associated with three distinct patterns of autoimmune failure, each of which is presumably the result of a unique autoimmune abnormality. Some specialists lump type 2 and type 3 together. Type 2 prevalence is roughly 1 in 1000, compared to type 1 incidence of 1 in 100,000 (1).
Polyglandular syndrome type 1
The autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), also known as type 1 syndrome, typically manifests in childhood. It has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern and is brought on by mutations in the AIRE gene. It is indicated by at least two of the following:
- Chronic candidiasis of the skin
- A lack of the adrenal glands (Addison disease)
The first clinical symptom, typically presenting in individuals under the age of 5, is candidiasis. Next, hypoparathyroidism develops, commonly in patients under the age of ten. Finally, patients under 15 years old get adrenal insufficiency.
Polyglandular syndrome type 2
Schmidt syndrome, also known as type 2 polyglandular syndrome, is more common in adults and has a peak prevalence at age 30. In women, it happens three times as frequently. It has polygenic inheritance and is linked to particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes. Typically, it shows up like the following:
- Adrenal under activity
- Either hypo- or hyperthyroidism
- Diabetes type 1 with an autoimmune cause
Polyglandular syndrome type 3
Adults, particularly middle-aged women, are commonly affected by type 3 gland failure. Additionally, it displays polygenic inheritance and is linked to specific HLA genotypes. It is distinguished by
- Type 3 does not affect the adrenal cortex in at least one other condition
T cells that are activated against auto-antigens fail to be completely eliminated, which leads to polyglandular syndrome type 1. The thymic epithelium is crossed by these mature T cells. The adaptive immune response cascade is activated as a result of the variable expression of the AIRE gene (autoimmune regulator gene), which is located on chromosome 21, and the range of illnesses linked to type 1 manifests. By having thyroid synthesis cascade or steroidogenic enzymes in the serum, polyglandular syndrome type 1 is proven to have both T and B cell problems.
When the adrenal cortex, thyroid, and pancreatic-cell (beta cell) synthesizing machinery are attacked by autoimmunity, polyglandular syndrome type 2 develops, which is characterized by impaired thyroid and adreno-cortical function. Similar to polyglandular syndrome type 2, but without the involvement of the adrenal cortex. While polyglandular syndrome type 3 is sometimes referred to as polyglandular syndrome type 3b, polyglandular syndrome type 2 is most frequently referred to as polyglandular syndrome type 2s. The DQ and DR sections of the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) on the short arm of chromosome 6 include the afflicted genes for polyglandular syndrome types 2 and 3, respectively.
Patients with polyglandular syndromes exhibit a combination of the associated nonendocrine illnesses and specific endocrine deficits in their clinical presentation; their symptoms and signs are covered elsewhere in THE MANUAL. The shortcomings don’t always develop at the same time and can take years to become apparent; in such circumstances, they don’t follow a certain order.
While the signs and symptoms of Polyglandular syndromes vary from patient to patient, at least two of the three major disorders that this syndrome can cause chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenocortical insufficiency—are frequently present in these patients. A characteristic of Polyglandular syndrome is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), which is characterized by recurrent candidiasis infections that can affect the skin, nails, oral, anal, and vaginal mucosa. It typically appears and recurs frequently within the first two years of life and is frequently the initial sign of the polyglandular syndrome. Babies typically exhibit thrush (oral candidiasis), nappy rash, and/or nail problems as the CMC of Polyglandular syndrome. (Please refer to the part of this report under “Related Disorders” for more details about CMC.)
Polyglandular deficiency disorders are diagnosed clinically and through the measurement of low hormone levels. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and coincidental endocrine dysfunction resulting from different causes are additional causes of multiple endocrine deficiencies (e.g., tuberculous hypoadrenalism and nonautoimmune hypothyroidism in the same patient or sarcoidosis affecting several endocrine glands).
- Monitoring hormone levels
- Occasionally, autoantibody titers
- Lymphocytic invasion.
- Anti-NALP5 antibodies.
- Antibodies against the adrenal cytochrome P450 enzyme.
- Antibodies against GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase).
- Antibodies to IA2.
Treatment for Polyglandular Syndromes:
Glucocorticoids like Prednisone and Cyclosporin, calcineurin inhibitors Tacrolimus and Sirolimus, and CD20 inhibitors like Methotrexate, Mycophenolate mofetil, and Rituximab are the mainstays of the recommended treatments for Polyglandular Syndromes. Complementary therapy should be used to treat vitamin and hormonal deficits. According to the symptoms, anti-candida medications such as ketoconazole, cortisol therapy, parental hydrocortisone administration, diabetes management, and glucocorticoid therapy are added to the regimen. With a symptomatic approach, other non-specific indications can be addressed. Utilizing CTLA4 inhibitors like Ipilimumab, Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab, and anti-tumor necrosis factor-(alpha) medicines are among the other treatments.