A blood condition called thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura causes blood clots to form in tiny blood vessels all over the body. Due to the breakdown of red blood cells, this causes a low platelet count, a low red blood cell count, and frequent kidney, heart, and brain malfunctions. Large bruising, fever, fatigue, shortness of breath, confusion, and headaches are a few symptoms that can occur. About half of the time, a trigger is found; in the other half, the cause is still a mystery. Bacterial infections, specific drugs, autoimmune conditions, including lupus, and pregnancy are also recognized factors. Antibodies commonly prevent the enzyme ADAMTS13 from working as the underlying mechanism.
A rare condition called thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura leads to the development of blood clots (thrombi) in tiny blood vessels all over the body. If these clots block blood vessels and reduce the supply of blood to organs including the cerebral cortex, kidneys, liver, and heart, they may result in major medical issues. Neurological issues (such as alterations in personality, migraines, disorientation, and slurred communication), fever, altered kidney function, abdominal pain, and cardiac issues are some of the complications that can arise from these clots.
In areas of blood vessel damage, blood clots typically develop to arrest blood loss. Even in the absence of obvious injury, clots form in people with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Platelets, aggregates of cells that circulate in the blood and aid in clotting, are what cause blood clots to form. Fewer platelets are present in the bloodstream in people with thrombotic thrombocytopenic because a lot of platelets are used to form clots. Purpura, or purple spots, are caused by a little bleeding that occurs just beneath the skin’s surface as a result of thrombocytopenia.
Causes of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura:
It is unknown what causes thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. However, a lack of the von Willebrand factor, which is a cleaving protease (also known as ADAMTS13), an enzyme essential for blood coagulation, is linked to the illness. Large concentrations of the clotting enzyme referred to as the von Willebrand effect can circulate in the blood as a result of this enzyme deficiency, causing platelet coagulation and the oxidation of red blood cells.
Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP), an acquired (non-inherited) form of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (cTTP), a family variety, are both recognized. Affected individuals may experience a single episode of iTTP or recurrent episodes. iTTP may manifest at any point in existence, whether in adolescence or maturity. This type of thrombotic thrombocytopenic, which is thought to be an autoimmune condition, is brought on when individuals produce a reaction that attacks ADAMTS13 protease, which causes the protease to be depleted in the body.
Signs and Symptoms:
These tiny clots in the blood vessels of numerous organs cause hemolytic anemia and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, which may obstruct the blood’s normal passage through the capillaries. Headaches, mental changes, disorientation, aberrant speech, minor or incomplete paralysis (paresis), seizures, or coma are a few symptoms of nervous system disturbances.
As a result of excessive blood loss into the mucous membranes, the thin, moist coating lining the body’s cavities, and the skin, affected individuals may also have patches of purplish staining (purpura), which might be a symptom of low platelets. Several warning indications of thrombotic thrombocytopenic may be present. The following are typical signs of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura:
- Respiration difficulty.
- A heartbeat that is rapid—more than 100 per minute.
- Jaundice (skin color yellowing).
- Bleeding into the mucous membranes or skin.
Diagnosis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura:
The following diagnostic procedures may be used to confirm thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura:
- Urine or kidney function tests
- Creatinine test
- Lactate dehydrogenase test
- ADAMTS13 assay
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Bilirubin test,
- Blood smear
The treatments for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura include Iodum, Secale Cor, Crotalus Horridus, Phosphorus, Latrodectus Mactans, and Bothrops Lanciolatus. These medications aid in managing hemorrhage and boosting blood platelets. A patient should take homeopathic medicine for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura under the direction of a homeopathic physician. Never use self-medication.
Fresh frozen plasma is often administered through an intravenous (IV) line that is put into your arm to treat hereditary TTP. It takes the place of the altered or absent ADAMTS13 enzyme. In a hospital, plasma therapy is completed. Up till your symptoms improve. This could take days or weeks, depending on your particular circumstances.
With this potentially life-saving surgery, your aberrant plasma is removed and replaced with healthy plasma. Your healthcare professional inserts an IV line into a vein during the process. The plasma is removed from your blood after it has been drawn from your body and spun in a centrifuge. Your blood is then reintroduced into your body with plasma added. Acquired TTP is treated with plasma exchange. Freshly frozen plasma may be used in the interim if plasma exchange is not an option.
There are various medications that can slow down or stop the generation of anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies. Rituximab and glucocorticoids are typical treatments for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. A splenectomy is required in extreme situations. Eliminating the spleen may assist with this issue because it produces the antibodies that stop the ADAMTS13 enzyme.
In most cases, the disorder cannot be avoided. We may, however, take precautions to avoid the issues brought on by thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. For instance:
- Avoid using medications that you are aware have in the past reduced your platelets.
- Avoid engaging in activities that could hurt you. Consult your doctor about the safest activities for you. Football, boxing, martial arts, and other contact sports have a high risk of injury.
- Your body produces fewer platelets when you drink alcohol. If you want to know if you can consume alcohol, ask your doctor.
- Aspirin, ibuprofen, and other over-the-counter pain relievers can affect platelet function.