What is AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA?
Hypogammaglobulinemia is another name for agammaglobulinemia. It is an inherited immune-related disease that causes recurrent infections and other complications. Due to maternal immunoglobulin G antibodies (IgG) in their system, newborns who have acquired this disorder are asymptomatic for the first six to nine months of their lives. After this age, children’s IgG levels fall below the protective threshold, which can lead to infectious diseases. X-linked agammaglobulinemia is the most prevalent type of agammaglobulinemia, accounting for nearly 85% of cases.
Furthermore, as the protective coating of maternal antibodies thins, numerous infection diseases among children, such as sinusitis, otitis media, and pneumonia, can develop. These are very prevalent infections in people with agammaglobulinemia, and by the time the infection is cured, another irreversible complication, bronchiectasis, has already developed. Rheumatologic symptoms have emerged in 10 to 30% of children. These children are vulnerable to septic arthritis and synovitis induced by common bacteria.
What are the causes
Agammaglobulinemia is caused by a variety of etiological causes. They fall as follows:
- ARAG (Autosomal Recessive Agammaglobulinemia): Caused by a combination of gene abnormalities. These genes are required for the creation of B-cells.
- X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA): It is caused by an enzyme called Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), which is found on the X-chromosome. The cause of XLA is recognized to be a genetic abnormality in BTK. BTK belongs to the Tec family, which produces non-receptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. It is required for the maturation of pre-B cells and B-cells that grow in the body’s bone marrow.
- Viral Infection: Secondary agammaglobulinemia is caused by some viral diseases. For example, immunodeficiency such as HIV (AIDS) affects CD4+T cells, reducing the cellular immune reaction that leads to infections and cancer.
- Drugs: Such as steroids, Azathioprine, Cyclophosphamide, Leflunomide, and Rapamycin may induce the second immunodeficiency.
- Growth hormone: Essentially X-linked agammaglobulinemia with a deficiency in growing hormone is exceedingly uncommon, a few instances have been observed and documented.
What are the symptoms?
Agammaglobulinemia is characterized by the following indications and symptoms:
- Rashes and abscesses on the skin are examples of skin diseases.
- Infections of the upper respiratory system.
- Persistent diarrhea.
- Bronchitis ( swelling in the lungs).
Homeopathic Treatment for AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA
Despite the fact that homeopathic medicine has made substantial strides recently, some diseases remain incurable. One of them is agammaglobulinemia. Gene-related abnormality cannot be corrected, substituted, or reversed. Additionally, it is very challenging to trigger the maturation of plasma cells, B-lymphocytes, and B-lymphocyte precursors. To handle the symptoms, there are a few alternatives, such as
- Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT): For individuals with agammaglobulinemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an alternative treatment option. This option is tedious because it is so challenging to locate a donor who is a good match.
- Upholding Hygiene: It is crucial to keep hygiene around kids because the condition is linked to secondary infections. When they reach a certain age, kids should learn to wash their hands and put on a facial mask when they interact with strangers. Parents should only provide their children with treated water because even untreated potable water can result in infectious diseases with a high risk of death.
- Antibiotics: Patients might also need aggressive treatment with antibiotics to address their viral infections in addition to IVIG therapy. Prolonged antibiotic therapy is advised in some instances of pulmonary infections and chronic sinusitis.
- Replacement of IV Immunoglobulins (IVIG): In individuals with agammaglobulinemia, immunoglobulin substitutes (IVIG) can be encouraging; however, the course of treatment may affect the patient’s quality of life. The procedure is administered directly every three to four weeks and subcutaneously at intervals of one to two weeks, with frequent follow-up appointments. This treatment has some drawbacks even though it may be an option for this fatal disease. For instance, it is a very expensive therapy and calls for ongoing monitoring. Furthermore, while the therapy is effective against the majority of pathogens, some rare pathogens have the potential to cause very serious conditions.
What are the precautions for AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA?
The mainstay treatment for Bruton agammaglobulinemia, also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and other primary antibody deficiencies is to replace immunoglobulin until gene therapy is discovered. (Ig). To prevent negative consequences, antibiotics should be used vigorously to treat bacterial infections. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines are contraindicated in these individuals and their families because they could result in infection related to the vaccine. On the contrary hand, it has been shown that after receiving the inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine, individuals with XLA exhibit normal dendritic and T-cell reactions to influenza.